People who never do something crazy, are more crazy in my eyes, than I'm in theirs.
---Vincent van Gogh (1884) Nuenen-Eindhoven---
The name's etymology is an Italian variation of the Common Germanic noun karlaz, the word is from Teutonic origin. The name is atypical for today's Germanic names as it is not composed of two elements, but simply a noun meaning "free man" sometimes also translated as "strong man". Monothematic (simplex) names where quite common during the 6th to 7th centuries, the standard dithematic (compounded) names become almost universal from the 8th century. The word survived in most languages also as noun, in Frisian tzirl, old-English "ceorl", in modern English "churl", low-German kerel, German kerl, Swedish karl. The meaning is in general translated as 'fellow, hero, country man, husband, a freeman of the lowest class'. In other languages different variations of the name can be found like "Carl, Karl, Karol, Karolus, Carolus, Carlos, Ceorl, Cearl, Charles". There are also female version of the name "Carola, Carla, Karla, Carlysle". Karolus and Carolus are Latinized forms. The ch- spelling in 'Charles' corresponds to the palatalization of the Latin group ca- to [tʃa] in Francien and the final -s to the former subjective case (cas sujet) of masculine names. The name is associated with "the desire to succeed" (Motivation), "confidence" (Character), "passionate" (Feelings), "possessing an inquiring mind" (Intelligence), "happy with personal beliefs" (Spiritual), Fun loving (Nature), "a love of freedom" (Inherent).
The name seems not a likely candidate for the name of a Germanic king, but it is attested as by the first Mercian King "Cearl of Mercia" (620). Karl Martel (686–741) was an illegitimate son of Pepijn van Herstal, and therefore indeed a "free man", but not of noble rank. After his victory at the Battle of Soissons (718), he styled himself Duke of the Franks. His eldest son was named Carloman (c. 710–754), a rare example of the element carl- occurring in a compound name. In the 7th century also the compound name Carlofred occurred. The Chronicle of Fredegar names an earlier Carloman as the father of Pepijn van Landen, and thus the great-great-grandfather of the Charles Martel. This would place the name Carloman in the 6th century, and open the possibility that the Frankish name Carl may originate as a short form of Carloman. Karl der Große (in Latin Karolus Magnus, in Italian Carlo Mango, in English Charlemagne) was the grandchild of Karl Martel. During the Carolingian dynasty the name appears frequently Karl van Ingelheim, Karl der Kahle, Karl III, Carlo di Provenza, Karolus puer, Carolus Simplex. After the name stayed very common by royals everywhere in Europe. Karol actually became the standard word for "king" in Slavic (Czech and Slovak král, Polish król; South Slavic kral крал, krȃlj краљ; Russian король), Baltic (Latvian karalis, Lithuanian karalius) and Hungarian (király). The name is also given to a district in Monaco, named after Carlo III di Monaco. The Monte Carlo method is mathematical method based on statistics often used computer simulation, it refers to the casino's in the Monaco capital. Carlism is a political movement in Spain. The name Carlo is not only used under kings, but also criminals, like Carlo Ponzi, the Italian-American con-man, who gave his name to Ponzi scheme, and Carlo Gambino, alias Don Carlo - Boss of the Bosses - who ruled the notorious Gambino Family. In the Netherlands the Italian form, is not as common used as the Dutch form "Karel". Around the year 1890, the name "Carlo" was given 12 times in 20 years. Mid 21ste century there came some boost, in 1933 the name was given to 7 births in 3 year, not shocking although. The popularity start to significant increase at after the second world war 12 births in one year in 1956, and during the period 1960-2010 the name had it's high times, with an average of 50 times age year. Which is at it's height still not very significant, under 185.000 births a year in the Netherlands. Although 2002 is still okay, in 2003 it drops dramatically to 11 births in that year. Over the last 5 years only an average of 4 namesakes a year are added to the 16.908.433 big Dutch population. So today we have a slight constant amount of 2774 namesakes in the Netherlands. There are also some who have this name as follow up name, 1129 males and 35 females. The name day is "November 4", in honor of St. Carlo Borromeo, the Archbishop of Milan, who died in 1584.
Les non-noble genera are able to carry their genealogical tree so far back as the family Vogels. The genera has brought forward many deserving members in church and held many public functions in especially in the County of Horne (today part of the Dutch province Limburg) and south-east of the Duchy Brabant (which included Maastricht at that time too). This all resulted in a quite documented history and an almost complete family tree. The tree starts in the beginning of the 13ͤ century, and was written down in 1917 in the book "Het Aloude Geslacht Vogels" by "André M.C.M Vogels and published by "Naamlooze Vennootschap Drukkerij De nieuwe Tijd Amsterdam". The book "Vogels Studiebeurzen" from A.F. van Beurden gives another inside look on the family. In Dutch language the name "Vogels" means "Birds" and so a few merlets show up in the coat of arms.
colors. Below the family crest: in azure with tree merlets from gold 2-1. Crest: 1 gold merlet. Sheet: azure and gold. Funeral: crest in silver with tree merlets in sable. Crest: 1 black merlette. Sheet: silver and sable.It has the text 'Bien en aviengne' which means 'may it prosper'.
Today we are still working on, improvements, corrections, lose ends, lost family members and trees of intermarried families, if you are a family member or know somebody, please contact me to create a tree for all future family members. Creating a family tree is not an easy task especially especially in the Burgundian Netherlands (south) people have traditionally many children as counterweight against the Calvinistic Nederlands (north). Beside all branches seem to be connected to old-Royals and those had regular many wives and mistresses.
Concerning my branch of the family Vogels, the male line, goes today in total 20 known generations deep, but for privacy reasons I have skipped all information from the 20th century and younger (that are 4 generations). Twenty generations means that you have theoretical on that level over 1 million ancestors. But real life is different! People generally married other people from their own village, sometimes from a neighbor village or town. So the incest level was high, lets say very very high. Although Royals married of partners from far, their pool was often even smaller, and their incest level higher. Without a huge level of incest, nobody would exist in an expanding population. Family trees of common people are quickly unknown, especially when source material is lost, which can happen during fire, wars etc.
Related families (the female lines) go much deeper because those are families descending from Clovis and Charlemange. My branch of the is not on time connected those those families, but multiple times! Yes, even more incest. The branch is directly related to the family "van der Aa [G5]" and deeper in the tree also related to "Melrode (Melcroth) [G12]", "Horne (de Hornes)[G24]", "Namur [G28]", "van Holland [G31]", "Blois [G37]", "von Kleef [G39]", "d'Alsace [G43]".
PDF from my ancestors
1) The family tree goes 188 generations deep, but most records after 54 generations (450 A.D.) are up for historical discussion. Most records after 60 generations must be considered as only for entertainment proposes, the are merely based on old legends, many based inventions of Merovingian scholars.
Ancestors in Historical Perspective:
300 BCE - 400 AD
It's fair to assume that family Vogels originate mainly from early Germanic tribes. The Roman writer Tacitius who wrote in the year 98 in his book "De Origine et situ Germanorum", about the myths of the Germanic tribes; "In ancient lays, their only type of historical tradition, they celebrate Tuisto, a god brought forth from the earth. They attribute to him a son, Mannus, the source and founder of their people, and to Mannus three sons, from whose names those nearest the Ocean are called Ingvaeones, those in the middle Herminones, and the rest Istvaeones. Some people, inasmuch as antiquity gives free rein to speculation, maintain that there were more sons born from the god and hence more tribal designations—Marsi, Gambrivii, Suebi, and Vandilii—and that those names are genuine and ancient.". One of those subtribes where known as the Salian Franks, it was a group of pirates, living in the 3rd century on the Veluwe, but they moved in 358 during the Migration Period into Batavia (Betuwe). This tribe came to some form of agreement with the Romans, who allowed them to settle south of the Rhine in Toxandria, this area is roughly the same as we today call Campine (or in Dutch "De Kempen"), in this region anno 2015 we can still find 81% of the family Vogels. In this region where at that moment living Celtic tribes, known as the Belgae and more southern the Gauls. Ancient sources such as Caesar are not always clear about the things used to define ethnicity today. While Caesar or his sources described the Belgae as distinctly different from the Gauls, Strabo stated that the differences between the Celts (Gauls) and Belgae, in countenance, language, politics, and way of life was a small one, unlike the difference between the Aquitanians and Celts. The fact that the Belgae were living in Gaul means that in one sense they were Gauls. The Aquitanians spoke the Aquitanian language, related to Basque. It was in a time when the Roman Empire was weakening by civil war and economic problems and other Barbarian tribes start to attack the Romans. This documentary gives an impression about the early stages of our region.
Orange: is the historical area where we talking about also known as
Low Fanconian, Low Frankish or Istvaeonic, Weser-Rhine Germanic
400 AD - 900 AD
Those early rulers of Salian Franks, became known as the Merovingian Dynasty, and they controlled for the Romans the northern part of their empire. The Franks spread out over the lower Rhine (till Köln, Bonn) in the direction of the middle Rhine (till Bingen). The area [orange] known Austrasia or Lower Franconian.When the Roman Empire started to weaken further, the Franks took more power out of the hands of the Romans and the region became ruled under Salic law. This documentary show the time under Clovis. This documentary leads us into a later generation that became known as the Carolingian dynasty. It's high time was around the year 800, under Karl der Große. This dynasty ruled from Herstal (21km south of Maastricht, today Belgium) but Karl replaced it to Aachen (29km east of Maastricht, today Germany). After the Francia fell apart powerful families connected to Karl der Große took power.
900 AD - 1500
The County Horn was one of the many heritage lands of "Karl der Große". The County of Horne was an autonomous mini-state and existed between 920 and 1795. It had his administrative state Horn (Castle Horn), that later became shifted to Weert. The historical castles are Castle Horn, De Aldenborgh, Nijenborgh. The family Vogels is indirectly related to the ruling House of Horn, it's likely that they were part from the inner circle of "The Hornes" already many generations before. Also the family Vogels had control over a large peace of land, which region today still is known as Vogelshof. Near this land the family operated a watermill, called the Vogelmolen, although replaced downstream (original location near Overhaelen), it still exist today, and it functions as a restaurant. The Netherlands is famous because of clogs, tulips and windmills (we still have 1.048 of them). Watermills are generally much more older, and we have only 108 of them. Adam Vogels, the owner of the watermill, married on 10 September 1455 with a granddaughter 'Oda van Haegten' from Willem VI van Horne, who was "Lord of Horne, Altena, Weert, Nederweert, Wessen, Heeze, Leende, Kortesse, Gaasbeek, Leeuw, Herstal". Her grandfather was already dead at that time, he was killed on 24 October 1415 in the Battle of Agincourt, she was then only 10 years old. The battle is today still remembered as a central peace in the play Henry V from William Shakespeare. Oda is a direct descendant in exactly 20 generations from Karl der Große. Not really remarkable all history happened in a very small area. And in 20 generations, concerning grows exponentially, we have in the that line 1 million ancestors. Today, 40 generations later, likely almost everybody in the area has blood of Karl der Große, and all other people that were living that time. But genealogy is tracing back the lines of the family history, and so we know it's exactly 20 generations. Sure we have to assume that mothers where always faithful, which is clearly not the case, one in the 25 fathers is not the biological one. "Willem VI van Horne" grandfather's mother called "Johanna van Leuven'. Johanna was a decent from "Gijsbrecht I van Leuven", and he was a vassal of the Carlovingians, he married one of the 18 granddaughter from Karl der Große. Let's say, he abducted her before marriage. In the family tree we also find a remarkable connection with early Russia, known as Kievan Rus. That link is through the grandfather from Willem VI, "Willem IV". He was married twice. His first wife "Oda Persijn" is 13 generations back a descent from Владимир Святославич. He is better known as Vladimir the Great, his daughter, married to Bernard I van Brandenburg.
1500 - PRESENT
The son from Adam and Oda, Henricus Vogels married in 1500 with Johanna van Doerne the daughter from Everard van Doerne, where she grew up at the so called small castle, next to the big castle in Deurne. Although Deurne is a village, it has the biggest territory of all places in the Netherlands. The marriage was not for long, Henricus died 5 years after. Their daughter Henriette Vogels married on 25 july 1531 with Jonkheer and Ridder Joest de Wilde van Merssen, he was vassal of the House of Horn and also castellan from Slot Loevenstein, that was build by Dirk Loef, the brother from Willem VI. This castle is in Holland especially famous because of the daring in escape from Hugo Grotius in a book chest. A story every child is told in primary school. Hugo faith ended good he escaped to Baarle-Hertog, which was still a Spanish (today Belgium) enclave in the Netherlands. He slept there in Herberg De Swaen, and followed his path through Antwerp to Paris. The story of Horn was less successful. In meantime Duke Johan II van Horne, was one of the wealthiest nobles of the Netherlands but hadn't any successors. Thereby the House would die out. Johan II married with the widow Anna van Egmont who was a daughter of Floris van Egmont. When Johan II died in 1540 he left his possessions to Anna van Egmont's children, on the condition they took his name.
During the time "The Hornes" took power also another family in Switzerland took power on the same way. It was the Count of Radbot of Kettgau. In 1020 he constructed a fortress called Habsburg an mainly through marriages it grew out till one of the important royal dynasties in Europe. Also the "Count of Horne" was part of this. All are blood related to the Franks. We can say "like in every happy family quarrels occur", but the Franks had a cruel history of family murders. In 1555 Philip II, who was part of the Habsburgs, had become king of Spain. The son of Anna van Egmont, Philip de Montmorency, better known as "The Count of Hornes" was together with Count Egmont Lamoral of one of the leaders of the opposition to Philip II who also controlled the Spanish Netherlands. Also the governor of the Spanish Netherlands Willem de Silent rebelled against the Spanish Habsburgs. He had married four years earlier the extremely wealthy granddaughter from the same Floris van Egmont, who's name was also Anna van Egmont. As the quarrels became hotter, he escaped the country, but despite of the warnings Philip de Montmorency and Egmont Lamoral stayed, they were seized and beheaded in 1568 at the Grand Place in Brussels. This was the final signal for the Dutch revolt, and Willem de Silent became its mean leader. It's also known as the Eighty Years' War (1568–1648), and the in dependence of the Habsburg Netherlands. Willem de Silent, a decedent of the German House of Orange-Nassau, founder of the current royal house in the Netherlands, was also not lucky, although in 1584 he became the first head of state from the Kingdom of the Netherlands, he was murdered by a gun, the bullet holes are still visible in the Prinsenhof in Delft. Willem was buried in the Nieuw Kerk in Delft, where today all his successors are buried as well.
His his former companion, Philip de Montmorency, was the very last count of Horn, after his execution and in the absence of a male heir, Horn came back in a personal union with the Principality of Liège. In 1795 the little state was annexed by the French Republic and included in the department of the Lower Meuse. Only after the Vienna Congress in 1815 it became a municipality of the United Kingdom of the Netherlands.
Although the County of Horn, and the House of Horn, cease to exist, the descendants of the family Vogels can still be found in this region as well in other parts of The Netherlands and Belgium, as Limburg, Brabant, North and South Holland, Luik, Brussel and Antwerpen. In 1947 there were 2217 namesakes in the Netherlands, and in 2007 there were 3759 namesakes, it almost doubled. 78% still lives in Brabant en Limburg, 20% in Holland. In Belgium there are 606 namesakes, most are concentrated in Belgian Limburg and Antwerp, and near the Dutch borders.
LEGENDS AND TALES FROM PRE 300 BCE
How the Salian Franks appear in the Netherlands is unknown and is merely based on old legends, many based inventions of Merovingian scholars. But as it's part of the story I have processed it in the tree. All record after 60 generations must be considered as legend. Here is a short explanation from it.
In generation 118 generation back, we have arrived in the year 1157 B.C. in Ryzanovka. This is a small neighborhood surrounded by a canal, the Rusanivs'kyi Kanal, and a tributary from the Dnieper River in the left-bank part of Kiev, the capital of Ukraine. The river and canal make the neighborhood resemble an island. This is said to be the place that Francius was born.
According to the Liber Historiae Francorum, an anonymous 8th century chronicle, Francio [G77] was the eponymous ancestor and legendary hero of the Franks. Nowadays, the German and Dutch names for France are Frankreich and Frankrijk, respectively, both meaning "Realm of the Franks". But Gregory of Tours, a 6th century Gallo-Roman historian and Bishop, wrote that nothing was known about the origin of the Franks except that they came from Pannonia. Gregory names some of the kings a few generations before his time but does not provide a connected genealogy. Francio was first named as an ancestor of the Franks by Fredegar (7th century), who also says he was a descendant of the Trojan king Priam but gives no details (Chronicon, II, 4-6, III, 2, 9). In Les Grandes Chroniques (15th century) Francius [G118] was identified with Astyanax, son of the Trojan prince Hector (Chroniques de Saint-Denis, livre I, chap. I), but the chronology required a second, later Francio [G77]. In later iterations, this Francio became a son of the Trojan prince Cestrinus, who was identified with Genger, king of the Cimmerian Bosporus, and the later Francio became the son of Antharius, king of the Sicambrii.
Like the story of Fancio, the story of Troy is based on other old stories, legends, myths and songs. There is no prove that Troy ever existed. The first written surviving accounts we know about Troy are Iliad and the Odyssey. The stories are attributed to Homer, but he was said to be blind and didn't write them down. Likely the tales where told already for many ages before they where written down. Homer was said to be lived around 500 years after the fall of Troy, but others suggest he's just another fictional character, as there is no proof he ever existed. Here is an documentary.
After the fall of Troy to the Achaeans in the Trojan War of ca.1181 BC, some Trojans had fled to Italy under the Dardanian prince, Aeneas, others fled to the Black Sea area and joined the nomadic Cimmerians with whom they had good relations. Eventually, these Trojans established several separate tribes within the Cimmerian nation. One such tribe under Francio migrated into the area around modern Budapest and established the Kingdom of Sicambria. When Sicambria was destroyed by the Goths, Francio's followers, broke into tribal groups. One tribe, the Sicambrian Franks, of whom Marcomir was a member, led by members of the old royal house, migrated westward toward the River Rhine.
Roman historians, including eyewitnesses like Caesar, have given us accounts that place the Sicambri firmly at the delta of the Rhine. The Sicambri appear in history around 55 BC, during the time of conquests of Gaul by Julius Caesar and his expansion of the Roman Empire. Caesar wrote in his Commentarii de Bello Gallico that at the confluence of the Rhine and Meuse River a battle took place in the land of the Menapii with Tencteri and Usipetes. When these two peoples were routed by him their cavalry escaped and found asylum north of the river with the Sicambri. Caesar then built a bridge across the river to punish the Sicambri.
Claudius Ptolemy located the Sicambri in 140 AD, together with the Bructeri Minores, at the most northern part of the Rhine and south of the Frisians who inhabit the coast north of the river. Strabo located the Sicambri next to the Menapii, “who dwell on both sides of the river Rhine near its mouth, in marshes and woods. It is opposite to these Menapii that the Sicambri are situated". So the Sicambri must have lived at the lower Rhine in what is now called the Netherlands.
Life experience, the forces that drive me, and some psychological self-testing have revealed my sense of life; evolution. Without doubt the biggest passion in my life are reading, study and personal development. I am heavily addicted, and forced to be a lifelong learner. The first signs of my curiousness where breaking toys to see what's inside (sorry teddy bear), then at age 4 I developed an interest in electricity, at age 8 in Russia, at age 13 in electronics, radio transmissions and computers. Finally starting studying "communication and information theory" the department of Electrical Engineering of the Eindhoven University of Technology, my main interest was field theory, a combination from the 3 known fields electromagnetic fields, forces in atoms and gravitational fields. Notice that gravitation has nothing to do with electrical engineering, nevertheless they share the same mathematical background. A related passion is working on my library that contains many books, audiobooks and lectures and documentaries, generally all from the non-fiction section. Beside I like to learn and listen to interesting people, I'm open-minded, I love to experiment, new ideas and different thoughts. This made me also a passionate traveler, but till so far mostly in Europe, I have spend ca. 300 days in Ukraine, 250 days in Russia, 200 days in Moldova, 60 days in Spain, 30 days in Romania and 30 days in Egypt. My life is driven by adventure, novelty, mystery, exploring, discovering and self-improvement. On the other way I stay away from traditions, dogma, doctrines, judgment, fanaticism. I endorse freedom and sticking to facts, science, research and logical reasoning. Thereby not saying that science is the complete story, or they we can blindly rely on the scientific world. Some parts of science are largely corrupted, especially where power is involved, as contemporary history, pharmaceutical industry, economics. In the second half of 2000, I wrote something about it. The main things that keep my thoughts busy are health, cooking, people, positive-psychology, science, history, technology, business and financials issues. With so many interests I'm never one minute bored, but also it's easy to loose track, which I regularly do. In psychology; the EPQ test describes me as a sanguine; the MBTI test as an ESTP, in the DISC test as a persuader, Helen Fisher as an 1st explorer and 2nd director, the lifestyle mentality test as an 1st post-modern hedonist and 2nd cosmopolitan, the OCEAN test says Openness >87%, Conscientiousness > 57%, Extraversion >97%, Agreeableness >63%, Neuroticism <1% (The is in percentile of the population, so average is 50%), the MNPI test even put me down in 120 scales, I guess you don't want to know them all ;-). I did do a bunch of other tests from the scientific world, if you are interested, just send me a mail. Although I'm an extrovert, with reading and studying I spend most of my life on an introvert way, I just sometimes have to take energy from the outside world. I love social life, and have met tons of people all over the world. I take private live as least as serious as professional life and I love to study it the same way. I have a holistic and a permissive approach to life, and try to live a lifestyle where all is integrated as well private- as professional life.
The Eysenck EPQ test with 46 questions.
My City Eindhoven:
Eindhoven is a young dynamic city, situated in the south of the Netherlands (Europe), not far from the Belgian and German border. Eindhoven is the 5th city in the Netherlands and has a population of around 213.000 people, it's Urban area has 440.000 people and the Metropolian Area 775.000 people. Eindhoven is part of the Metropolis Brabantse Stedenrij which has a population of 2.3 million people. The megapolis Randstad, that includes Knooppunt Arnhem-Nijmegen and Brabantse Stedenrij has a population of 7.4 million. The population density from the Netherlands is the 28th highest in the world, ten times higher that average. In opposition to the European Mainport Rotterdam, Eindhoven has called itself Brainport and profile itself as ‘leading in technology’. Together with Stockholm, Helsinki and Munich, Eindhoven is one of the four European ‘hot spots’ for advanced technology and innovation. A quarter of all jobs in the region are technology-related, with such companies as Philips, AMSL and DAF. Eindhoven has the third highest rated technical University in Europe, and offers many of its programs in English. Eindhoven was nominated as one of the Top 7 Smartest Regions in the world and finally became the smartest in 2011, we lost that position when I start traveling ;-). But that doesn't matter for us as we stay in the 2014 list of "The 20 Best Cities On The Planet" ranking on number 15, just leaving our beautiful capital Amsterdam one place behind us. Eindhoven is after Amsterdam the second most important economical region of the Netherlands, even far before Rotterdam, which owns the biggest seaport of Europe. We are very happy people in Holland, if you believe this report, than we rank first in the world. In 2001, I wrote an encyclopedia about my region, here is an old version of it.
More about my city and region
My City Chisinau:
Chisinau, is the capital and the largest city of the republic Moldova, the city has 700.000 inhabitants, almost 20% of it's total population. With trees on almost every street, 23 lakes and it's many parks it's considered to be one of the greenest cities in Europe. The city was founded in 1436 as a monastery village. Chisinau lies on seven hills that are situated around the river Bîc. The river, with a length of 155km originate from the Codri Hills and mouths in the Dniester, the river that marks the border of the break away zone Transnistria. After the dead of the Moldavian prince Ştefan III (1433 – 1504), better known as Ștefan cel Mare, the settlement fell under control of the Ottoman Turks and lost it's independence. The Byzantine styled Măzărache Church, completed in 1772 is considered to be the oldest monument in Chisinau. The church was build by Vasile Măzărache on the foundations of a older fortress that was destroyed by the Ottomans. At the foot of the hill where the church is build on there was a water spring, it's believed that the name Chisinau is derived from that spring, in archaic Romanian "chisla noua" that means "new spring". Back in 1774 the population of Chisinau had just 600 inhabitants. During the Russo-Turkish war from 1806-1812 the eastern part of Moldova came in hands from the Russian Empire, and Chisinau became the capital of newly annexed gubernia (oblast) of Bessarabia. At the beginning of the 19 century the capital grew to 7000 people. In 1818 Chisinau got it's first park "Pushkin Park" called after Russian greatest poet and founder of modern Russian literature Alexander Pushkin (1799-1837). A statue from him, considered to be the oldest surviving monument, was placed there in 1820. Pushkin lived three years in exile in Chisinau was for three years (between 1820-1850). Today, Moldova has one of the best wired Internet connections in the world as well as one of the cheapest in terms of price per Mbit.
A romantic view of the Gates of Chisinau on Dacia Boulevard
My contact information:
Phone: +31 402 81 82 83 or +31 848 848 468 or +373 67750271
Whatsapp/Viber: +373 67750271
Wise men speak because they have something to say; Fools because they have to say something.
---Plato (427 BC - 347 BC)---